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Central diabetes insipidus is a rare condition that involves extreme thirst and excessive urination. Diabetes insipidus DI is an uncommon condition in which the kidneys are unable to prevent the excretion of water. DI is a different disease than diabetes, though both share common symptoms of excessive urination and thirst. Central diabetes insipidus is a form of DI that occurs when the body has a lower than normal amount of antidiuretic hormone ADH. ADH is also called vasopressin. ADH is produced in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus.
Central diabetes insipidus CDI, characterized by polyuria and polydipsia, is caused by deficiency of arginine vasopressin AVP, an antidiuretic hormone which acts on V2 receptors in kidney to promote reabsorption of free water. CDI is classified into three subtypes; idiopathic, secondary and familial. A previous study suggests that infundibulo-neurohypophysitis might be an underlying cause of idiopathic CDI. Among secondary CDI, the tumors in the central nervous system such as craniopharyngioma and germ cell tumors are the most frequent causes.